Part 2: The Salvation Arguments
Studies in the Atonement by
Dr. Robert A. Morey
aving completed our presentation of
these foundational principles, we now turn to a setting forth of
particular arguments which also establish our doctrine.
Argument 1: Salvation Has One
No one can really dispute the truth
that God alone is the author of salvation in every age. Was it not God
who first sought out Adam and Eve after their fall into sin (Gen.
3:1‑14)? Did He not at that time preach the Gospel to them (Gen. 3:15)?
Did not God shed the first blood because of man's sin (Gen. 3:21)? Did
not Noah and his family escape destruction because he "found grace in
the eyes of the Lord" (Gen. 6:8)? Did not Jonah confess "Salvation is of
the Lord" (Jonah 2:9)? Did not John record in John 3:16 "For this is how
God loved the world: He gave his unique Son so that everyone who
believes in him might not perish but have eternal life."?
God alone is the author of
salvation regardless of the age. To say that Old Testament saints were
saved by their legal obedience to the law is the same as saying that
they were the author of their own salvation. No, if a sinner was saved
in Old Testament times, it was by the gracious work of God and not by
works of righteousness for "a person is not justified by the works of
the law but by the faithfulness of Jesus Christ." (Gal. 2:16).
Argument 2: Salvation Has One Means of Reception: Faith
How did salvation come to the Old
Testament saint? Was it earned as Scofield taught? Or, was it received
In the book of Romans, it is
apparent that the Apostle Paul was conscious of the accusation that his
gospel was in conflict with the Old Testament Scripture and the Old
Testament view of salvation.
The Pharisees thought that they
were saved by their own obedience (Lk. 18:11‑14). Thus they complained
that Paul's "justification by faith apart from the Law" was
unscriptural. They felt that the Gospel was in basic conflict with the
Old Testament. It is important to point out at this point that dispensationalism agrees with the Pharisees in their understanding of
Old Testament salvation. If Scofield is right, then Paul's gospel is in
direct conflict with the Old Testament. Thus Paul was "unscriptural."
Because of the Jewish opposition to
the gospel, Paul is careful to quote the Old Testament Scriptures at
every point to show that the Gospel is rooted in Old Testament Scripture
and experience. Thus in chapter 1, he begins by
mentioning the "gospel of God" to emphasize that it is not uniquely
Christ's Gospel invented by Him but rather it is God the Father's Gospel
as well. Then he begins his emphasis on the
Old Testament basis of the Gospel by saying in verse 2,
Which He had promised afore by His
prophets in the Holy Scriptures.
The first two verses of Romans are
just a beginning of references to the Old Testament. Indeed, Paul quotes
from the Old Testament more times in Romans than in any other of his
epistles. Romans is Paul's demonstration that the Gospel was preached
"through his prophets in the Holy Scriptures" (Rom. 1:2).
In introducing the Gospel of
Christ, Paul sets forth his position in verse 16:
For I am not ashamed of the gospel,
because it is God's power for the salvation of everyone who believes, of
the Jew first and of the Greek as well.
On what grounds does the apostle
say that salvation comes to us 'by faith" in verse 16? In verse 17, Paul
quotes that Old Testament from Hab. 2:4,
as it is written, "The righteous
will live by faith."
Thus Paul sees salvation by faith
in Hab. 2:4. Old Testament saints were told in this passage by one of
God’s prophets (verse 2) that the way of salvation was faith not works.
After his brief introduction, Paul
launches into a full exposition of man's helpless and sinful state by
nature. Man is pictured as spiritually unable to do anything for his
salvation. It is important to ask, "Does Paul only picture men in his
day as being sinners under God's wrath (1:18) or is he speaking of
mankind in general, i.e. in every age?"
It is obvious that Paul is speaking
of fallen human nature regardless of the age because he bases his
teaching concerning God's judgment and man's sinfulness on Old Testament
passages (Rom. 2:6; 10‑18). He concludes that man is so sinful that good
works are impossible (3:10‑12). He further concludes that works could
not save anyone because the Law's function was to reveal sin, not to
Now we know that what things soever
the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth
may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
Therefore by the deeds of the law
there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the
knowledge of sin. (Rom. 3:19, 20)
Having demonstrated for three
chapters that "all have sinned and continue to fall short of God's
glory" (Rom. 3:23), Paul now turns to the Gospel as the answer to man's
In the Gospel, a righteousness has
been provided by the work of Jesus Christ. This righteousness comes to
us by faith apart from the works of the law. This is the teaching of the
Old Testament as well.
But now, apart from the Law, God's
righteousness is revealed and is attested by the law and the
Prophets—God's righteousness through the faithfulness of Jesus Christ
for all who believe. For there is no distinction. (Rom. 3:21‑22)
This righteousness is the imputed
righteousness of justification which comes to us by virtue of the
propitiatory sacrifice of Christ.
By his grace they are justified
freely through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God offered
as a place where atonement by Christ's blood could occur through faith.
He did this to demonstrate his righteousness, because he had waited
patiently to deal with sins committed in the past. He wanted to
demonstrate at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he
justifies the person who has the faithfulness of Jesus. (Rom. 3:24‑26).
Now Paul begins to prove that
justification through faith was experienced by Old Testament saints as
well as being taught by such Old Testament prophets as Habakkuk. His first
proof centers on Abraham who represents all the saints who lived before
the law was given. How was Abraham saved? Paul; tells us in 4:1‑5,
What, then, are we to say about
Abraham, our ancestor according to the flesh? For if Abraham was justified
by works, he would have had something to boast about—though not before
God. For what does the Scripture say? "Abraham believed God, and it was
credited to him as righteousness."
Now to someone who works, wages are
not considered a gift but an obligation. However, to someone who does not
work, but simply believes in the one who justifies the ungodly, his faith
is credited as righteousness.
But what about those who lived after
the Law? Were they saved by the works of the Law? No, says Paul. David who
lived after the Law represents all who lived after Moses. David was
justified through faith alone. Thus Paul states in 4:6‑8,
David also speaks of the blessedness of the person whom God regards as
righteous apart from works:
are those whose iniquities are forgiven
sins are covered!
How blessed is the person whose sins
the Lord will never charge against him!
By quoting from the Law (4:1‑5), the
Writings (4:6‑8) and the Prophets (1:17), Paul demonstrates that the
entire Old Testament from beginning to end taught the same gospel as he
preached, i.e. salvation comes by justification through faith alone. And
in case these passages were not enough, Paul even quotes Moses in Rom.
19:5‑9 as preaching the Gospel. And he gives the gospel call to come to
Christ by quoting Joel 2:32 in Rom. 10:13. For "everyone who calls on the
name of the Lord will be saved."
Since it is
clear that Old Testament saints were justified by grace through faith,
Paul assumes that they must therefore have the other elements of the
application of redemption which he lists in Rom. 8:28‑30,
And we know that he works all things
together for the good of those who love God, who are called according to
his purpose. For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be
conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the firstborn
among many brothers. And those whom he predestined, he also called; and
those whom he called, he also justified; and those whom he justified he
Consider Abraham as an example. Was he
effectually called? Yes, in Neh. 9:7 and Acts 7:3, 4 we learn that God
called Abraham out of idolatry. Was Abraham justified? Yes, in Rom. 4:1‑4
we read of his justification. Will Abraham be glorified? Yes, in Matt.
8:11 Jesus pictures Abraham with the glorified saints.
It is an unavoidable conclusion that
if Abraham experienced the salvation described in Rom. 8:30, then he
likewise experienced what Paul elsewhere includes in the application of
redemption: regeneration, adoption, sanctification, preservation, etc.
All the elements of redemption are
necessarily connected to one another. Seeing Abraham was justified, this
implies regeneration to produce the justifying faith needed (John 3:3, 5)
and adoption as the consequence.
We would further point out that a
close study of the book of Galatians will reveal the same teaching of the
Apostle Paul: Abraham was saved through believing the Gospel. Old
Testament saints were justified by faith apart from the works of the Law.
Yet we know that a person is not
justified by the works of the law but by the faithfulness of Jesus Christ.
We, too, have believed in Christ Jesus so that we might be justified by
the faith of Christ and not by the works of the law, for no human being
will be justified by the works of the law. (Gal. 2:16). In
the same way, Abraham "believed God, and it was credited to him as
You see, then, that those who have faith are Abraham's real descendants.
Because the Scripture saw ahead of time that God would justify the
Gentiles by faith, it announced the gospel to Abraham beforehand when it
said, "Through you all nations will be blessed." Therefore, those who
believe are blessed together with Abraham, the one who believed.
Certainly all who depend on the works
of the law are under a curse. For it is written, "A curse on everyone who
does not obey everything that is written in the book of the law!" Now it
is obvious that no one is justified in the sight of God by the law,
because "The righteous will live by faith." But the law has nothing to do
with faith. Instead, "The person who keeps the commandments will have life
in them." Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse
for us. For it is written, "A curse on everyone who is hung on a tree!"
This happened in order that the blessing promised to Abraham would come to
the Gentiles through Christ Jesus, so that we might receive the promised
Spirit through faith. (Gal. 3:6‑14).
the Scripture has put everything under the power of sin, so that what was
promised by the faithfulness of Christ
might be given to those who believe. (Gal. 3:22).
Or again, in Hebrews 11, we are told
that the Old Testament saints lived and died through faith. Let us read
the story of Moses described as the triumph in Christ.
By faith Moses was hidden by his parents for three months after he was
born, because they saw that he was a beautiful child and were not afraid
of the king's order.
By faith Moses, when he had grown up, refused to be called a son of
Pharaoh's daughter, because he preferred being mistreated with God's
people to enjoying the pleasures of sin for a short time. He thought that
being insulted for the sake of Christ was of greater value than the
treasures of Egypt, because he was looking ahead to his reward.
By faith he
left Egypt, without being afraid of the king's anger, and he persevered
because he saw the one who is invisible.
By faith he
established the Passover and the sprinkling of blood to keep the destroyer
of the firstborn from touching the people.
they went through the Red Sea as if it were dry land. When the Egyptians
tried to do this, they were drowned. (Heb. 11:23‑29).
There is one last argument which can
be advanced to demonstrate that there has been and now is only one way of
salvation: faith alone. In Romans 3:28, the Apostle concludes
his argument which is found verses 21‑27 by saying,
Therefore we conclude that a man is
justified by faith without the deeds of the law.
Having stated his conclusion, he now
deals with every important issue in the early church. This issue can be
summarized as follows: Given the radical distinction between Jew and
Gentile as manifested in the Old Testament, doesn't this imply that the
Jew will have a different way of salvation distinct from a Gentile way of
salvation? Doesn't the Jew‑Gentile distinction mean two different
salvations as well? Maybe the Gentile, who is without the law and
covenants, can be saved by faith alone. But the Jew must fulfill Mosaic
righteousness as well. The Jew must have works as well as faith. Is this
Is he the God of the Jews only? Is he
not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also:
In verse 30, he states that God,
shall justify the circumcision by
faith, and uncircumcision through faith.
Justification comes to Jew and
Gentile only "by" or "through" faith. This much is clear. But what we want to point out is the
reason Paul advances to prove there is only one way of salvation: by faith
alone. The reason is given in the first part of verse 30:
since there is only one God who will
justify the circumcised on the basis of faith and the uncircumcised by
that same faith.
The Apostle argues that there is only
one way of salvation which is by faith on the grounds that "God is one."
Here we find the Apostle arguing from the unchangeable character of God.
Because God has only one nature or character which never changes, there
can be only one way of salvation for all peoples. Seeing there is only one
God, there can be only one way of salvation. The only way to say that
there has been or is more than one way of salvation is to imply that there
are more gods than one. This is impossible.
Was God "one" in the Old Testament as
well as in the New? Yes. Is this one God the same God for both Testaments?
Yes. Then the way of salvation by faith must be the only way of salvation
in both Testaments. The Old Testament saints were saved by faith apart
from the works of the law.
At this point it is crucial to
emphasize that the object and character of faith has always been the same
throughout all the ages even thou there has been and now are varying
degrees of understanding and knowledge in saving faith.
1. The object of faith has always
been the same: The Lord Jesus Christ.
Some have mistakenly thought the
faith in the Old Testament had God the Father as its object while faith in
the New Testament has the Son of God as its object. But this assumption
does not do justice to the Scripture or to the Lord Jesus.
We firmly believe that Jesus Christ
has always been the object of saving faith throughout the centuries. Old
Testament saints were saved by believing in Him.
1. Did not the Lord Jesus exist from
all eternity before His incarnation (John 1:1‑18)?
2. Was it not the pre‑incarnate
Christ who walked and talked with Adam and Eve in the Garden and preached
the Gospel to them (Gen. 3:1‑15)?
3. Did not the pre‑incarnate Christ
appear in human form to Abraham and promise him a son (Gen. 18:13, 17‑33
of John 8:56‑58)?
4. Did not the pre‑incarnate Christ
appear in human form and wrestle with Jacob and bless him (Gen. 32:24)?
5. Did not Moses meet and believe in
the pre‑incarnate Christ (Ex. 3:3‑6, 14 of John 8:58; Heb. 11:24‑27)?
6. Did not David exhort all to trust
in the Son of God (Psa. 2:11, 2)?
7. Is it not true that the Lord Jesus
is pictured as the Savior in Psa. 22, the Shepherd in Psa. 23 and the
Sovereign in Psa. 24 (John 10)?
8. Is it not true that the Jehovah of
the Old Testament in many instances is the Jesus of the New?
9. Are not we explicitly told that
Old Testament saints trusted in Christ and received life from Him (I Cor.
10. Did not Abraham hear of Christ in
the Gospel message which we heard from Christ (Gal. 3:8, 16)?
11. Did not the Old Testament
prophets speak about Christ “by the spirit of Christ which was in them” (I
12. Did not Agur in Prov. 30:4 reveal
that he knew of the Son of God?
13. Does not Heb. 4:2 explicitly
state that Israel heard the gospel during the wilderness wanderings but
that it did not profit them “not being mixed with faith” (4:2 cf.
The Old Testament saints believed in
the pre‑incarnate Christ. No one can read such passages as Psa. 2 without
coming to this conclusion.
2. The character of faith has always been the same.
Again, some people mistakenly think
that Old Testament saints were saved by looking forward to the coming of
Christ as we are saved by looking back to the work of Christ. But again we
cannot agree with this notion.
1. Saving faith has as it object
the person of Christ who accomplished redemption. Faith does not have
as its sole or chief object the work of Christ. After all, where do we
ever read in the Bible “Believe that Christ died for you”? We are told to
“believe on the Lord Jesus Christ” (Acts 16:31).
2. We are not saved by looking
back to the work of Christ. We are saved by looking up, believing and
calling upon His name for salvation (Rom. 10: 13). Saving faith is always
a personal and immediate closing with Christ or coming to Christ (Matt.
We must conclude that Old Testament
saints were not saved by looking forward to the work of Christ. They were
saved by looking up in present‑tense faith to Jehovah Jesus. Here are a
few of the Old Testament. invitations to faith which emphasize this truth.
Look unto me, and be ye saved, all
the ends of the earth: for I am God, and there is none else (Isa. 45;22).
Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye
to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea,
come, buy wine and milk without money and without price (Isa 55:1).
Come now, and let us reason together,
saith the LORD: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as
snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool (Isa. 1:18).
Be wise now therefore, 0 ye kings: be
instructed, ye judges of the earth.
Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice
Kiss the Son, lest he be angry,
and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little.
Blessed are all they that put their trust in him (Psa. 2:10‑12).
Commit thy way unto the LORD; trust
also in him; and he shall bring it to pass (Psa. 37:5).
Trust in the LORD with all thine
heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding.
In all thy ways acknowledge him, and
he shall direct thy paths (Prov. 3:5, 6).
And it shall come to pass, that
whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered: for in
mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance, as the LORD hath said,
and in the remnant whom the LORD shall call (Joel 2:32).
3. We must make the distinction
between the quality of faith and the degrees of understanding faith.
The quality of the faith of Old
Testament saints was equal to or, in some cases, greater than the faith of
most New Testament believers.
The faith of Old Testament believers
was personal, vibrant, strong and triumphant. For this reason the New
Testament writers could put forth the Old Testament saints as the
Christian’s example of triumphant, conquering, and persevering faith (see
Heb. 11). Some of the saints were called upon to do great works. They
accomplished them through their mighty faith.
But to say that the quality of the
faith of Old Testament saints was equal to or greater than faith today is
not the same as saying that their faith had the same content. They knew so
little compared to what we know today. They lived in the shadows of the
cross. They did not understand Christ's propitiatory death (I Pet.
1:9‑12). Thus their appeal for divine forgiveness was based on God’s
merciful attributes instead of the blood of Christ (Psa. 51 cf. I John
1:7‑2:2). Their faith was simply that God was merciful and He would take
care of the sin problem somehow.
An illustration of the difference
between the quality of faith and understanding in faith can be drawn from
the present conversion experience of sinners. If you, as the reader, have
seen saved by God’s grace, perhaps you can answer these questions based on
1. How much do you know today of
Christ as compared with what you knew of Him at conversion?
2. Is it not true that you have grown
in your understanding?
3. Do you feel that you knew so
little of the riches of God in Christ Jesus when at first you believed?
4. But is it not the case with some
of you, that while your understanding has increased, the quality of your
faith has decreased? Your heart has grown cold even though your knowledge
has increased? Do you miss the vitality, zeal, and warmth of your first
love? Others of you can humbly confess that the quality of your faith has
increased along with your knowledge. To Him alone belongs the glory for
this singular mercy.
5. Was this not the case with Old
Testament believers? We confess, "How little they knew." But we also urge,
"How mightily they believed." In the words of Hebrews 11:32‑38,
more should I say? For time would fail me to tell you about Gideon, Barak,
Samson, Jephthah, David, Samuel, and the prophets. Through faith they
conquered kingdoms, administered justice, received promises, shut the
mouths of lions, put out raging fires, escaped death by the sword, found
strength in weakness, became powerful in battle, and routed foreign
armies. Women received back their dead through a resurrection. Others were
brutally tortured but refused to accept release, so that they might gain a
better resurrection. Still others endured taunts and floggings, and even
chains and imprisonment. They were stoned to death, sawed in half, and
killed with swords. They went around in sheepskins and goatskins. They
were needy, oppressed, and mistreated. The world wasn't worthy of them.
They wandered in deserts, mountains, caves, and holes in the ground.
If any doubt remains concerning the
quality of the faith of Old Testament saints, we would suggest spending
time in the book of Psalms. There you will find Psalms which parallel
every experience in the Christian life. Your heart cannot but pray these
inspired prayers and praise. You will feel one with the Psalmist in his
If you read the Psalms regularly or
any portion of the Old Testament, you will have to confess, "Oh, that my
faith was as strong vital and warm as theirs."
already demonstrated that Old Testament saints were justified through
faith apart from the works of the Law. But we must ask, "On what grounds
or basis were they justified?"
The Apostle Paul answers this
question in Romans 3:24‑26,
By his grace they are justified freely through the redemption that is in
Christ Jesus, whom God offered as a place where atonement by Christ's
blood could occur through faith. He did this to demonstrate his
righteousness, because he had waited patiently to deal with sins committed
in the past. He wanted to demonstrate at the present time that he himself
is righteous and that he justifies the person who has the faithfulness of
Justification comes to a sinner by
grace. It cannot be earned as Paul pointed this out particularly when
discussing Abraham's justification in Romans 4:4, 5,
Now to someone who works, wages are
not considered a gift but an obligation. However, to someone who does not
work, but simply believes in the one who justifies the ungodly, his faith
is credited as righteousness.
Elsewhere, the Apostle establishes
the truth that grace and works can never be mixed together.
if this is by grace, then it is no longer on the basis of works.
Otherwise, grace would no longer be grace. (Rom. 11:6).
But on what basis is grace given to
justify the ungodly? It is on the basis of "the redemption that is in
Christ Jesus" (Rom. 3:24). How and in what way the work of Christ is
imputed to us has already been discussed in the chapter dealing with
justification. Therefore, it is sufficient to say that the only way for
sinners to be saved in any age is through the grace which flows out of the
saving work of Christ.
Argument 4: Salvation has essentially one content.
Have we not already virtually proven
this proposition? Old Testament saints must necessarily receive and
experience essentially the same salvation which is offered in the Gospel
unchangeable character of God
eternity of the cross
depravity of man
unity of the Testaments; and because
Salvation has only one Author: God
(6) There is
only one way of salvation: faith
Salvation has only one basis: grace through Christ.
Seeing there is only one Savior, and
only one way of salvation there can be but one salvation. The fact that
Paul taught the Old Testament saints were justified by grace through faith
on the basis of Christ's work, is sufficient grounds to see them receive
the rest of the application of salvation.
But we must
carefully point out that we said that Old Testament saints "essentially"
possessed the same salvation. "Essentially" is not the same as "Exactly"
The age of the New Covenant is
superior to the Old Covenant in many ways. Read the book of Hebrews where
there is a full display of the superiority of the New Covenant over the
Old. Therefore, we would naturally assume that New Covenant salvation must
be superior over Old Covenant salvation. And, indeed, it is.
But, at this point, we must make the
distinction between the experience of salvation itself and the believer's
enjoyment of it and assurance about it. Essentially, salvation is the same
in all ages. But until Christ came, there could not be a full enjoyment or
assurance of one's full salvation.
The Old Testament saints did not
possess the light of the New Testament. Their conscience was never at rest
not knowing of the ultimate sacrifice of the Lamb of God. That this is
true is seen in Hebrews 10:1‑25 where we read,
the law, being only a reflection of the blessings to come and not their
substance, can never, by the same sacrifices repeatedly offered year after
year, make those who come near perfect. Otherwise, would they not have
stopped offering them, because the worshipers, cleansed once for all,
would no longer be aware of any sins? Instead,
through those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year after year, for
it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.
this reason, when Christ came into the world, he said,
"You did not want sacrifices
but you prepared a body for me.
In burnt offerings and sin
you never took delight.
Then I said,
'See, I have come to do your will, O God'
(in the scroll of the Book this is written about me)."
In this passage he says,
never wanted or took delight in sacrifices, offerings, burnt offerings,
and sin offerings," which are offered according to the law. Then he says,
"See, I have come to do your will." He takes away the first in order to
establish the second. By his will we have been sanctified once for all
through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ.
day every priest stands and repeatedly offers the same sacrifices that can
never take away sins. But when this priest had offered for all time one
sacrifice for sins, "he sat down at the right hand of God." Since that
time, he has been waiting for his enemies to be made a footstool for his
feet. For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are
The Holy Spirit also assures us of
this. For he said,
"This is the covenant that
I will make with them
after those days, declares the Lord:
I will put my laws in their hearts
and will write them on their minds,"
"I will never again remember their sins
and their lawless deeds."
where there is forgiveness of these sins, there is no longer any offering
Therefore, my brothers, since we have
confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, the new and
living way that he opened for us through the curtain (that is, through his
flesh), and since we have a great high priest over the household of God,
let us continue to come near with sincere hearts in full assurance of
faith, because our hearts have been sprinkled clean from an evil
conscience and our bodies have been washed with pure water. Let us
continue to hold firmly to the hope that we confess without wavering, for
the one who made the promise is faithful. And let us continue to consider
how to stimulate one another to love and good deeds, not neglecting to
meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another even
more as you see the day coming nearer.
In this passage, we are told that the
Old Testament saint did not have a conscience liberated from being smitten
by sin because: (1) he did not know of Christ's death and (2) the need for
continual animal sacrifices.
But we who live after Christ know
that His sacrifice was final and efficacious (vs. 10, 12), and thus a new
and living way is opened for us (v. 12) so that we may have boldness to
enter into God's presence without fear through the saving work of Christ
Old Testament believers did not have
the enjoyment and assurance of salvation which is possible for the New
Testament believer. They had essentially the same salvation as we do but
they could not understand, enjoy or gain much assurance from it. This is
the area where the superiority of New Covenant salvation outshines Old
In conclusion, salvation is one in
author, means, basis, and essential content. In every age sinners have
been justified by grace through faith on the basis of Christ's work. In
the Old Testament as in the New Testament,
"Salvation is of the Lord."